Trong quá trình thi công sơn chúng ta mắc phải những lỗi do sơn hoặc tay nghề của thợ sơn khiến cho bề mặt sơn không được như ý . Sau đây sơn nhà tại hà nội sẽ nêu ra một số lỗi chúng ta thường hay mắc phải và cách khắc phục

  1. Màng sơn bị nhăn

Hiện tượng: Bề mặt màng sơn khi khô bị nhăn, sần sùi, không tạo bề mặt liên tục.

Nguyên nhân: – Thi công lớp sơn quá dày, đặc biệt đối với sơn Alkyd hay sơn gốc dầu) – Thi công trong điều kiện thời tiết quá nóng hay quá lạnh gây ra hiện tượng lớp sơn bên ngoài khô quá nhanh so với lớp bên trong. – Do độ ẩm không khí cao làm ảnh hưởng đến quá trình khô của màng sơn. – Không tuân thủ thời gian sơn cách lớp, lớp trong chưa khô đã sơn lớp sơn ngoài. – Sơn trên bề mặt dính tạp chất.

Cách xử lý: Cạo bỏ lớp sơn, làm sạch bề mặt. khi sử dụng sơn lót phải để lớp này khô hoàn toàn trước khi sơn lớp phủ (tránh sơn trong điều kiện có nhiệt độ và độ ẩm quá cao).

  1. Màng sơn bị “vết bóng“

Hiện tượng: Màng sơn bị tăng bóng khi có sự va chạm cọ sát.

Nguyên nhân:  – Sử dụng loại sơn Flat (mờ) tại nơi có độ cọ sát cao. – Thường xuyên rửa bề mặt màng. – Đồ vật (đồ gỗ) cọ sát tường.

Cách xử lý: Nên dùng loại sơn nước có chất lượng cao tại các bề mặt hay cần đến chùi rửa. Khu vực có sự lưu thông cao nên chọn loại sơn bán bóng hayt bóng. Khi chùi rửa bề mặt màng sơn nên dùng vải ềm không chà sát khi rửa.

  1. Màng sơn bị nứt

Hiện tượng: Trên bề mặt màng sơn có những vết rạn nứt.

Nguyên nhân:  – Sử dụng sơn có độ bám dính và độ bền thấp. – Sơn quá mỏng hay quá dày – Xử lý bề mặt không tốt, hay bề mặt gỗ không dùng sơn lót. – Dùng loại sơn Alkyd quá cứng hay quá giòn.

Cách xử lý: dùng bàn sủi và bàn chải sắt cao bỏ toàn bộ lớp sơn, chà nhám bề mặt và các góc. Đối với gỗ nên sử dụng sơn lót trước khi sơn phủ lại. Sử dụng loại sơn có chất lượng cao.

  1. Màng sơn bị sần sùi

Hiện tượng: Màng sơn không mịn màng bằng phẳng do có các hạt bọt và các lỗ do bọt vỡ ra.

Nguyên nhân:  – Khuấy trộn thùng sơn không đều. – Sử dụng loại sơn có chất lượng thấp. – Lăn sơn quá nhanh – Sử dụng rulo không đúng (chiều dài sợi không đúng). – Lăn thừa sơn. – Sơn có độ bóng cao trên bề mặt sần sùi.

Cách xử lý: tất cả các loại sơn khi thi công sẽ tạo bọt tuy nhiên sơn có chất lượng, khi bề mặt còn ướt bọt đã bị vỡ ra, tạo cho màng sơn phẳng có độ chảy tốt. Tránh lăn sơn thừa hay sử dụng sơn quá đát. Sử dụng loại sơn bóng hay bán bóng đều bằng rulô có đầu sợi ngắn, lăn sơn lót trên bề mặt sần sùi trước khi lăn sơn phủ. Chà nhám bề mặt bị sần sùi trước khi lăn sơn lại.

  1. Màng sơn bị rêu mốc

Hiện tượng: màng sơn bị đốm xanh hay nâu, đen.

Nguyên nhân:  – Hay xảy ra ở những nơi có điều kiện thuận lợi cho sự phát triển của rêu mốc: ẩm, ấm (nhà tắm, bếp, phòng giặt)… – Do sử dụng sơn Alkyd hay sơn gốc dầu hay loại sơn nước có chất lượng thấp. – Đối với bề mặt gỗ: lớp sơn lót không đạt chất lượng trước khi sơn. – Sơn trên bề mặt rêu mốc chưa được xử lý kỹ.

Cách xử lý: Trước hết cần kiểm tra: dùng thuốc tẩy nhỏ 1 giọt vào nơi có rêu mốc (đốm màu), nếu đốm màu bị mờ đi đó là rêu mốc. Chà rửa toàn bộ bề mặt để tẩy rêu mốc bằng dung dịch tẩy. Khi dùng dung dịch này phải đeo găng tay cao su, kính bảo vệ mắt. nên dùng loại sơn nước có chất lượng cao. Các loại sơn này có nhiều chất chống rêu mốcx hơn loại sơn có chất lượng thấp. Rửa sạch bề mặt bằng dung dịch tẩy rửa nếu cần. Lắp quạt nơi có độ ẩm cao.

  1. Màng sơn bị xà phòng hóa

Hiện tượng: Sự cô đọng chất hoạt động trên bề mặt sơn nước ở các nơi có độ ẩm cao. Nó có dạng vết màu nâu nhạt và đôi khi trông nó như vết xà phòng hay dính nhầy.

Nguyên nhân: Tất cả các loại sơn nước đều bị hiện tượng này khi sơn ở những nơi có độ ẩm cao đặc biệt ở trần.

Cách xử lý: Dùng xà phòng rửa sạch nơi bị sự cố và khi sơn phòng tắm nên để màng sơn thật khô mới sử dụng nước. Tẩy sạch toàn bộ các vết bẩn trước khi sơn lại.

7. Màng sơn bị nhiễm bẩn

Hiện tượng: Sự hư hỏng màng sơn do thấm các chất bẩn.

Nguyên nhân: sử dụng loại sơn có chất lượng thấp hoặc sơn trên bề mặt không sơn lót.

Cách xử lý: sử dụng loại sơn nước có chất lượng cao, loại sơn này có hàm lượng chất tạo màng cao, chất bẩn khó ngấm vào màng sơn, tạo điều kiện cho việc chùi rửa dễ dàng. Nên dùng sơn lót để tạo màng sơn có độ dày tối đa để chống nhiễm bẩn.

120 thoughts on “Một số lỗi thường gặp của bề mặt sơn và cách khắc phục

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